Parliamentary systems are systems in which voters elects members of parliament only, and parliament elects the prime minister. In this system, voters elected the party members of parliament, which gives control of the government to the party members. The government is formed by the party, which received the majority of votes. The Prime Minister elects members of Parliament to be members of his cabinet. The cabinet guides ministries of the government. The majority of parliament must support it, otherwise the cabinet falls and new members must be elected. Party members will elect a prime minister that shares their values and interests. The Prime Minister is elected by Parliament, but can’t be removed from office. Parliamentary systems have fusion of power. The legislative and executive branches are connected. The connection between branches allows for legislation to pass by the Prime Minister quickly because the Prime Minister is involved in creating the legislation. The Prime Minister working with Parliament allows there to be accountability between him and the majority party voted in by civilians. Two examples of Parliamentary systems are Great Britain and Sweden. A different party being elected in different elections allows for diversity in the history of a nation’s government, but causes political instability because decreases the chance of policies lasting long term.
Presidential systems have separate elections to elect the executive president. The president is elected directly by the voters. Voters also elect members of parliament. The United States of America is an example of a presidential system. The president has control of the executive branch. There is a separation of power to make sure none of the three branches of government abuses its power. Federal laws need to be passed by parliament with a majority vote. But, the president has the power to veto the law. When parliament and the president have different values or interests it’s difficult to create legislation. The president and legislators are elected for a fix term. The president can be impeached from office by parliament, only if he is proven guilty of illegal activity. The lack of collective responsible and control of the government creates the lack of government accountability. The two party system and majority rule does not allow for much diversity, but encourages political stability.
The semi-presidential system is a system that has both a president and prime minister that share executive power. The way power is shared may vary depending on state. In France, the prime minister deals with domestic policy and the president deals with foreign policy. When the president and prime minister are from the same parties it can be an efficient government. When their political parties differ it is called cohabitation. Cohabitation can be used as a checked and balanced system or it can be used to block the opposing party. It depends on the individual politicians involved.